Why Apprenticeships Are on the Rise

on Tuesday, April 12 @ 8:05pm

Ask any VP of Engineering or CTO, and they’ll tell you hiring talented developers is getting harder. Meanwhile, ask one of the millions of underemployed millennials, and they’ll say they are willing to learn, but can’t get their foot in the door. Apprenticeship was once a commonplace feature of the American economy, but for the last 30 years it has been in decline. Apprenticeships are the critical link to closing the skills gap for employers and reducing unemployment for millennials.

To understand why apprenticeships can bridge the gap, let’s take a look at the marketplace for technical talent.

Traditional Universities are Failing Us

traditional-uni

First, the gap between supply and demand for technical talent is widening. On the supply side of the marketplace for technical talent, we have universities. According to the Department of Labor, 400,000 new CS grads will enter the workforce between 2010 and 2020. In that same period, nearly 1.4 million new tech jobs will be created. That’s a shortage – a skills gap of – 1 million more jobs than graduates.

Second, even those students graduating in computer science, aren’t prepared for careers in software engineering. Universities care about helping students become job-ready. But that isn’t their singular goal. Many also seek to teach a liberal arts education and to publish ground-breaking research. Because of this, there is no singular focus on one goal. As a result, students graduate ill-prepared for industry. According to Brad Neese, director of Apprenticeship Carolina, employers are seeing “a real lack of applicability in terms of skill level” from college graduates.

For example, top tier university computer science curricula often include courses in advanced math, physics, compilers, and operating systems. When we surveyed engineers at top companies like Twitter, Facebook, Google, and Amazon, they told us they used less than 25% of their university education in their career. According to Rob Gonzales, co-founder of Salsify, “many ‘core’ CS courses really aren’t that critical for becoming very productive engineers. I’ve never had to write a compiler or operating system in my career, and the last time I thought about finite automata was 2001 when I was studying them myself.”

Meanwhile, few universities teach essential skills a software engineer will use every day. According to Mo Kudeki, a Software Engineer at Twitter, “Although I went to a top Computer Science program, there are software engineering topics that we never covered that are crucial to being a great engineer, like how to methodically debug something, and how to give and receive a good code review.”

All of these factors combined result in a tremendous mismatch between the skills with which American students graduate and the skills needed by employers.

Employers are Hungry But Ill-Equipped to Train

chalkboard

While employers are hungry to recruit great talent, their appetite for growing that talent themselves has been declining for the past decade. According to Lauren Weber of the WSJ, apprenticeships in the US have declined over 30% from 2003 to 2013.

Furthermore, even those companies that want to provision such training may be unable to do so. Training programs require experienced instructors. According to Gonzales, “you must have someone to manage the program full time, including doing daily coaching, code reviews, design sessions, planning sessions, one-on-ones, communication outside of the group to gather requirements, etc. This person should be respected throughout the organization, as getting the program started and effective is going to be a bumpy road that will draw on company resources even beyond the coach.”

Unfortunately, the shortage of technical talent has left most companies without the bench strength to fill existing headcount and also train a large pool of junior developers. According to Marcy Capron, the founder and CEO of Chicago-based Polymathic: “Companies don’t have an infrastructure for ongoing learning. We really need a guide to mentoring junior devs. Hourly consulting firms can’t afford it because you can’t bill mentoring to the client.

We’re Seeing Renewed Investment and Innovation in Technical Skills Training

pair-programming

So with universities failing us, and employers hungry but unable to grow their own talent, a new breed of apprenticeship-like programs have leveraged technology to deliver better outcomes, more affordably than ever before. Computer science bootcamps put students through compressed programs to prepare them for coding jobs. These bootcamp programs have found traction with employers and graduates alike. The first coding bootcamp was founded just four years ago, but Course Report estimates that over 150 bootcamps graduated more than 16,000 alumni in 2015 – a combined estimated market of $180M, up from $0 in 2011.

According to Western Governors University President Bob Mendenhall in the Washington Post “Neither accreditation nor regulation has caught up with the power of technology to impact both the quality and cost and accessibility of higher education.” And last month, Udacity raised $105 Million bringing their valuation to $1 billion, Dev Bootcamp was acquired by Kaplan, and Bloc recently announced a year-long Software Engineering Track, which includes a three month apprenticeship, before students start the job search. And now a slew of specialized apprenticeship programs are emerging.

Employees are also more open to non-traditional university education than ever before. According to a 2014 survey by Glassdoor, 72 percent of employees said they value specialized training over earning a degree. What’s more, 63 percent of respondents said they believe that nontraditional ways of learning new skills — such as certificate programs, bootcamps, webinars and massive open online courses — could help them earn a bigger paycheck. This growth for nontraditional skills training may be coming at the expense of graduate programs, with more than half (53%) of employees saying a graduate degree is no longer necessary to be offered a high-paying job.

What Should We Expect to See in 2016?

As apprentice-like programs cross the chasm from early adopters to early majority, we may see see savvy millennials foregoing the traditional 4-year campus experience in favor of a leaner hybrid, pairing community college with a technical apprenticeship that gets them into the workforce and learning on the job earlier and with less debt.

With the hype around coding bootcamps reaching it’s zenith, we may see these programs coming full-circle, as they begin adding-back curriculum covering the computer science theory that they once eschewed.

More advice on changing careers

How to Succeed in an Online Coding Program

Learning online is hard

As online education proliferates (read: online coding programs), its proponents and detractors develop increasingly stronger opinions on its effectiveness. Proponents tout online education’s low cost, accessibility, and flexibility. Students can learn anywhere, according to their schedule, and usually at a reduced expense. Detractors, on the other hand, cite high dropout rates and a lack of effectiveness. While both sides of this debate are correct, there is a strategy for succeeding in an online program.

Create a dedicated home office, and make it awesome

A dedicated home office doesn’t require a large investment. As an online student you’ll work from home most of the time. You must find a space that’s quiet, clean, and allows for ergonomic amenities. 100 square feet should be plenty of space to create an office. You can find high-quality office furniture at IKEA, or buy used from a site like craigslist. Consider using a standing desk, or treat yourself to an ergonomic desk chair. Better yet, you can buy a sitting desk and build a modular standing desk, so you can stand or sit.

After your desk and chair are positioned, build the rest of the office around them. Hang pictures or paintings and buy a small bookshelf to fill with inspirational books. Save your money for perhaps the most expensive things, like a computer and monitor. It’s essential that you have a capable computer, and I recommend splurging on a large monitor. You’ll need to have multiple windows open from time to time, and a large monitor provides the real estate to do this.

Finally, if you live with other people, ask them to respect your office space. A clean, organized, and comfortable office will set you on the right path for succeeding in an online program.

Immerse yourself

When you take an in-person program, immersion in the topic is inherent. You’re physically near your classmates which means that you’re likely to discuss the program and share knowledge. As an online student, immersion is not necessarily inherent – you have to force the issue. Your program will probably have a community – forums, chat rooms and mail lists – and while those are good places to hang out, you shouldn’t stop there. Subscribe to blogs and podcasts and find people to follow on Twitter. Get to know the lingo of your topic of study, and some of its key figures. It doesn’t matter if you understand everything right away, it’s important to become comfortable with the “language” you’re learning.

Study every day

In-person programs impose a routine of study because you have to go to class at specific times. Online programs offer more flexibility, so you have to manufacture a routine. Without a consistent and disciplined routine of study, you will not succeed in an online program. Whether you spend 15 minutes or 8 hours studying, you must study every single day. Create a habit for yourself. How long it takes to form a habit depends on the person, but you’ll know once you develop it because it will feel wrong not to study. Make sure that your study time is scheduled when you are at your mental best, and not when you’re tired or easily distracted. Find a method that helps you get into a relaxed zone, and make sure you schedule your study time around it.

Find meetups

The fact that you don’t have a classroom doesn’t mean you should avoid people and in-person interaction. An online program offers many benefits over an in-person program, but interaction in real life is something it can not offer. Fortunately, there are many options for meeting people in real life for many different areas of interest.

For example, if you’re studying to become a Rails web developer, there is almost certainly a Ruby or Rails meetup in your area. Join the meetup group, discuss your program with others, tell them what you’re working on and what you’re having trouble with. You’ll learn a lot from these experiences, and often in ways that are hard to duplicate virtually.

Rebase iteratively, and celebrate

No matter how great your virtual community is or how many meetups you attend, as an online student you’ll spend most of your time alone. It’s easy to forget how much you’ve learned when nobody is there to remind you. You must make it a habit to remind yourself. At the end of every day, you should rebase. That is, think about what you know, compared to the prior day. Think about the problem you’ve been toiling over, and that you finally solved. Even though these may seem like small wins, celebrate them! Treat yourself to a beer, order a pizza, or do something to spoil yourself for every little win.

Celebrating your wins is as important as embracing your struggles. If you focus too much on either, you’ll derail your progress. Develop a balanced mindset for both, and you’ll create momentum to capitalize on your wins, and grit to push you through struggles.

Will an online program work for you?

It certainly can, but whether it does or not ultimately depends on your commitment, consistency, and discipline. The strategy outlined in this blog will ensure that you succeed in your program, but you have to embrace every part. If you do, an online program will provide you with a quality education, at a reduced cost, and on your own schedule.

How to Succeed in an Online Coding Program
How a Top Programming Bootcamp Can Get You Ready for a Job as a Software Developer

Today’s modern programming bootcamps promise job readiness upon graduation, and in this post we’ll discuss how they deliver on that pledge. While Bloc wrote this for Bloc, this content applies to most well-known programming bootcamps (e.g. Hack Reactor, MakerSquare, Dev Bootcamp). We’ll explore three features that bootcamps provide to help students prepare for their new careers.

Skills

skills

First and foremost, a programming bootcamp imbues students with the necessary skills required for their new career. For Bloc’s Full Stack Developer Track, that means Ruby on Rails, Ruby, Javascript, the command line, Git, GitHub, and many more technologies. Though similar, each bootcamp instructs a slightly different set of skills. The industry finds most (if not all) of these skills relevant and highly sought-after. Regardless where a student studies or the tech stack they master, it is a good bet that career opportunities await on the other side.

More importantly, the software industry is one where within a year’s time or less, an up-and-coming tech stack can overthrow the standard – the industry changes all the time. Bootcamps employ working professionals who incorporate the latest technologies into the curriculum to combat the sector’s ever-changing landscape. These individuals filter the noise to discover the technological shifts critical to their student’s education and success.

Bootcamps also have students engage and master soft skills, such as Agile and Test-Driven development (TDD). Agile is a project management paradigm that is prevalent among many startups and established companies. Similarly, many organizations follow TDD practices that require developers to write tests before writing the code that runs the application. Bootcamps that employ these soft skills better prepare their students for their future work environments.

For a complete list of technical topics covered in Bloc’s Full Stack Developer Track, refer to our Rails and Frontend technology resources.

Portfolio

portfolio

Every developer should have a portfolio. For seasoned developers, it is a combination of projects worked on in corporate, contract, open source, and personal environments. For bootcamp graduates, the stakes are not quite as high. However, a bootcamp helps students build a modest portfolio of two to four fully functional, well-designed applications.

A portfolio reflects upon a student’s ability to apply their new skills and create something of their own. During an interview, students not only have applications to talk about, but may open up a laptop and show their interviewer said applications, what they do, and how they work. If a picture is worth a thousand words, then a working application is worth 10,000 lines of code (or something like that).

At Bloc, we require students to complete three projects before they graduate, and many often build more than that. We help students along the way, guiding them with mentorship and high-level architecture concepts. Students may also choose to develop a capstone project, one that is entirely of their own design. Students often graduate Bloc with an excellent showcase project or even a full portfolio of apps.

Career Preparation

career-prep

A skilled student with an excellent portfolio of applications is ready for one last thing: the job hunt. Bootcamps that aim to find gainful employment for their students will prepare them for the arduous task of looking for career opportunities. This begins with the fundamentals: resumes, online profiles (LinkedIn, GitHub, StackOverflow) and cover letters.

Most bootcamps go much further, often requiring the student to participate in mock phone screens and in-person interviews. This includes practicing interview questions, both technical and otherwise.

Once a student is adequately prepared for an actual job search, the bootcamp and its partners work together to find employment opportunities for them. Bootcamps have extensive networks of mentors, recruiters, and corporate partners that want to snatch up talent before losing it to the competition.

Established companies such as Autodesk, Starbucks, and Groupon have hired our graduates. Bloc’s mentors, and even Bloc itself, have hired graduates in the past, a practice that has resulted in great outcomes on both sides.


If a bootcamp can endow a student with fundamental skills, a stunning portfolio of applications, and the tools required to begin a job hunt, it prepares that student for a career as a software developer.

How a Top Programming Bootcamp Can Get You Ready for a Job as a Software Developer